Grading of Rapids – from

Came across a good article on what defines a rapid’s class on the kayaksnthings blog. Here’s an excerpt:

Grade I: Fast moving water with riffles and small waves. Few obstructions, all obvious and easily missed with little training. Risk to swimmers is slight; self-rescue is easy.
Grade II: Straightforward rapids with wide, clear channels which are evident without scouting. Occasional maneuvering may be required, but rocks and medium-sized waves are easily missed by trained paddlers. Swimmers are seldom injured and group assistance, while helpful, is seldom needed. Rapids that are at the upper end of this difficulty range are designated Class II+.
Grade III: Rapids with moderate, irregular waves which may be difficult to avoid and which can swamp an open canoe. Complex maneuvers in fast current and good boat control in tight passages or around ledges are often required; large waves or strainers may be present but are easily avoided. Strong eddies and powerful current effects can be found, particularly on large-volume rivers. scouting is advisable for inexperienced parties. Injuries while swimming are rare; self-rescue is usually easy but group assistance may be required to avoid long swims. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated Class III- or Class III+ respectively.

Class IV rapid

Grade IV: Intense, powerful but predictable rapids requiring precise boat handling in turbulent water. Depending on the character of the river, it may feature large, unavoidable waves and holes or constricted passages demanding fast maneuvers under pressure. A fast, reliable eddy turn may be needed to initiate maneuvers, scout rapids, or rest. Rapids may require “must” moves above dangerous hazards. Scouting may be necessary the first time down. Risk of injury to swimmers is moderate to high, and water conditions may make self-rescue difficult. Group assistance for rescue is often essential but requires practiced skills. A strong kayak roll is highly recommended. Rapids that are at the lower or upper end of this difficulty range are designated Class IV- or Class IV+ respectively.
Grade V: Extremely long, obstructed, or very violent rapids which expose a paddler to added risk. Drops may contain large, unavoidable waves and holes or steep, congested chutes with complex, demanding routes. Rapids may continue for long distances between pools, demanding a high level of fitness. What eddies exist may be small, turbulent, or difficult to reach. At the high end of the scale, several of these factors may be combined. Scouting is recommended but may be difficult. Swims are dangerous, and rescue is often difficult even for experts. A very reliable kayak roll, proper equipment, extensive experience, and practiced rescue skills are essential. Because of the large range of difficulty that exists beyond Class IV, Class 5 is an open-ended, multiple-level scale designated by class 5.0, 5.1, 5.2, etc… each of these levels is an order of magnitude more difficult than the last. Example: increasing difficulty from Class 5.0 to Class 5.1 is a similar order of magnitude as increasing from Class IV to Class 5.0.
Grade VI: These runs have almost never been attempted and often exemplify the extremes of difficulty, unpredictability and danger. The consequences of errors are very severe and rescue may be impossible. For teams of experts only, at favorable water levels, after close personal inspection and taking all precautions. After a Class VI rapids has been run many times, its rating may be changed to an appropriate Class 5.x rating.

Read the rest here: Grading of Rapids is dependant on water flow, experience and knowlege of the paddler. —

My First Day

I got a call from my friend Ed asking if I’d like to go boating with he and Dan the next day. I’ve known Ed my whole life, he was at my christening, at least I assume he was as his parents are my God parents. I didn’t meet Dan until I joined Boy Scouts at age 11. Ed was a Scout also. We’ve been close friends ever since.
We all did a lot of canoeing in the scouts but mostly on smaller rivers like the Wading in South Jersey or week long trips on the Susquehanna out near Pittsburgh. I tell Ed I’m in and will meet him at his house in the morning.
Dan is already there when I get to Ed’s house. He’s usually early for things while I tend to get there at the last minute. Ed already has his boats and gear laid out on the lawn, a couple of Dagger Animases, a Wavesport Frankenstein and a Wavesport Diesel 65. He tells me that the Frankenstien may be a bit small for me and that they call the Diesel a “banana boat” because its yellow and its hard to control. He tells me to pick a boat and recommends one of the Animases. I choose the Diesel as it looks more like the boats I had seen people paddling when I rafted the Gauley. Ed tells me he knew I’d pick that one, he and Dan both think I’m a little wacked.
We are going to paddle the Musconetcong River and shuttle Dan’s truck down to the takeout at the Penwell Dam. We get back to Ed’s and carry the boats down to the put in on Kings Highway.
I’ve never been in a Kayak before. Ed shows me how to put on the spray skirt and I sit in the boat at the edge of the river. I have a PFD but stick it inside my boat. I’ve never worn one canoeing and don’t see why I should start now. None of us has a helmet. Ed tells me to pull the grab loop if I flip and pushes me in.
The water is moving kind of fast and is really shallow. The boat feels extremely tippy to me and I’m a little frightened. I feel as though the boat is going to flip every time I hit a rock, and I’m hitting a lot of rocks. 
I can’t seem to control this thing. Sometimes it goes left, other times right and occasionally just turns around backwards for no apparent reason at all. I hear Dan laughing behind me, at least he’s enjoying himself.
The Musconetcong is a small river and is mostly moving flat water with an occassional ripple where people have piled rocks to form primitive dams. I really am enjoying running the tongues of water between the rocks and am starting to get the feel of the boat. Sometimes it even goes where I want it to.
We come around a bend in the river and the water picks up speed as it drops into a narrow shoot between an island and the bank. I start down the shoot and get a little nervous when I see a small pillow of water in the center at the bottom. I know its a rock but cannot manuever the boat around it. I’m moving too fast and headed straight for it.
To my surprise the boat just kind of bumps over it and I’m still upright. That was a lot of fun. We paddle in to the pool above the Penwell dam.
The dam is maybe 6′ high and slopes down at perhaps a 45 degree angle. There is a standing wave all the way across the bottom. Ed tells me that he has run it before. I’m pretty skeptical. Ed paddles up, drops over the lip, appears below the dam and motions for me to go next.
Nervously, I paddle slowly up to the lip. So slowly , in fact, that I get stuck up there with the bow of the boat hanging over the edge. I look down at the standing wave below the dam and am not all that happy with my current position. I finally summon the courage to rock my boat forward and start over the dam.
Its over before I know it. Its really easy. Just slide down and crash through the wave. How cool is that? I carry the boat up and try it again, at least another 10 times.
Later, while we are paddling around in the pool above the dam, Ed says that he has read about how to roll a kayak but can’t do it himself.
He says that you do a C to C motion with your body and the kayak comes up. He tries it but cannot roll so he pushes his paddle off the bottom and comes back up, I figure how hard can it be? It looks so easy on the National Geographic specials when the Eskimos do it. Over I go.
I try to form a C to C by alternately leaning over the bow of the then back over the stern. It doesn’t work the first time. In fact, it seems like the boat doesn’t move at all. I try it a few more times but continue to get the same result. About then, my brain, which admittedly has not been functioning too well to this point, begins to realize that this isn’t going to work and that oxygen is in short supply down here. I put the blade of my paddle on the bottom of the river and push.
That doesn’t work either. I just succeed in pushing the boat away from the paddle. I’m not coming up and its starting to worry me a little.
I let go of the paddle and try to lift my head above the water while doing some kind of frantic dog paddle stroke. Ed is in his boat on my other side trying to roll me up. It seems that every time I get close to getting my head out of the water, Ed rolls me back in the other direction. Pretty funny really although I fail to see the humor at the time.
My lungs are burning and it occurs to me that I might drown in 3′ of water. I’ve always been a strong swimmer and it seems impossible that this could be happening. I think that my wife Carole is really going to be mad.
It finally dawns on me to pull the grab loop, pull the skirt and exit the boat. I don’t know why I didn’t think of that before, all I could think of was getting my head above the surface. I stand up in waist deep water.
Ed has flipped over and lost his paddle while trying to help me. Dan is sitting in his boat kind of watching the whole thing, he doesn’t know what to do. I grab Ed’s boat and flip him back up. I should have held him under for a while, it would have served him right. I look over at Dan and he just shakes his head, he thinks I’m nuts.
We pack up the boats in Dan’s truck and head back to Ed’s house. I had a great day and can’t wait to try this again.

1st Trip on the Gauley

I’m standing near my boat nervously waiting for the return of the shuttle drivers. I’ve already watered the local flora a few times and my mouth feels kind of dry. I’m pretty keyed up.
 The Gauley is the river of my dreams. I had rafted it about 10 years before and thought then how much fun it looked like the guys in the kayaks were having. Later, when I  started kayaking, the Gauley was an unattainable goal. I never felt that I would have the skills to paddle. Here I am and I’m not confident that I do have those skills.
I spent a mostly sleepless night, waking up every couple of hours worried that I was being foolish in attempting the river. That happens to me a lot whenever I run a new river. From my first trip on Fifebrook until now, its a pattern I can’t seem to break.
I met up with Wayne at the Gauleyfest earlier this morning. Wayne isn’t going to paddle. He had broken his finger on the Raquette a week or two earlier and was just down to help out at the festival. The plan was for me to paddle with Wayne’s friend Mark. Mark finally emerges from his tent and it doesn’t look as if he will be going anywhere soon. Too much Gaulyfest. Felling a little relieved, I tell Wayne that it would be OK if I don’t paddle. I had paddled the Lower Gauley yesterday with Ken and could save the Upper for another trip. Wayne tells me its not a problem, his friend Art has already left for the put in and maybe we can catch him if we hurry.
The parking lot at the put in is a mass of shuttle vehicles all carrying kayaks, canoes or rafts. There are Park Service Rangers directing traffic. There are also tons of buses bringing in hoards of commercial rafters. Boaters are everywhere. The Ranger directs us into a parking slot and we pull in.
Wayne knows the 2 guys who are getting changed across from us in the parking lot. I think he knows everyone else there too. He introduces me to Mike and Stu and asks if they wouldn’t mind me joining them on the river. They say sure but that they are paddling with Art so we should check with him.
Art is sitting on a 2 person raft in front of the bathrooms. Wayne and I walk over to meet him. Wayne introduces me and then asks Art if he wouldn’t mind me joining their group. Art looks a little skeptical and tells us that he is planning on a quick run with little or no scouting. With much more bravado than I feel, I tell Art that is OK with me. Art still looks a little unhappy to me. Apparently he has paddled with one of Wayne’s friends before and the trip did not go very well. Wayne assures him that I will be fine. I don’t know how he is so sure, I’ve never paddled with him before. Art says OK but still looks unhappy, maybe he just looks like that.
I wait off to the side for the rest of the group. Everyone else is talking about rivers they have paddled. I keep my mouth shut. I don’t want anyone to know that I have only paddled one other class V river. I don’t feel like I belong in the group. They’ve all done big rivers and I’m just starting out. I feel like the new kid in school
At last the shuttle drivers get back and we are ready to put on. Our group consist of Art and his wife (or girlfriend,I didn’t really catch the relationship) paddling a raft, 2 guys paddling a shredder, Mike, Stu, Christiano, his girlfriend (or wife) me and a couple of other guys. Most people are paddling creekers. I’m in my 4 fun. Again I wonder if I’m not making a mistake.
We enter the 1st rapid, Initiation or something like that. Mike tells me that there is a hole at the top that I want to stay out of followed by a couple of small ledges. There is also a pinning rock on river right below the hole so make sure I stay left. I follow Mike’s line through the rapid and flip at the bottom ledge. I roll right up and hope no one noticed, just starting out and already I’m upside down. Art won’t be happy, but he’s in front so maybe he missed it.
We paddle across a long pool towards a horizon line. Mike tells me that the next drop is insignificant. I kind of think that this is a big one but I’m not really sure if it’s class IV or V. I don’t want to show my ignorance by asking. Mike explains that there are 2 monster holes and we have to skirt the first to river right and the next to river left. He tells me that the holes are close together, that there is only about a 5′ wide tongue between them and that you cannot see them until you are right on top of them. You kind of have to know where they are. The holes are followed by a large wavetrain and we want to stay away from river right as there are a lot of undercuts over there. He also tells me that he screws this drop up about half of the times he runs it. I decide it would be more prudent to follow Stu.
Stu enter the drop a little bit to right center and I follow close behind. So close that I have to backpaddle every now and then to keep from hitting him. When Stu paddles right, I paddle right. When Stu paddles left, I paddle left. We enter the wave train and I am still upright. I’d like to say that I’m styling it but the truth is I’m barely holding on. The waves are huge, at least 6′ high and crashing back on top of me. I lean forward hard into them and hope for the best. Art is at the bottom waiting in his raft and gives me a thumbs up as I emerge from the last of the waves, maybe even a little smile but it might have been the water in my eyes. Stu asks if I noticed the holes at the top. I shake my head yes but its a lie. The only thing I noticed was the back of Stu’s boat. If he had gone into a hole I was going in with him.
To my amazement, 2 members of our group are swimming including Mike. I can’t believe that I made it through and these guys didn’t. They are so much better than I am. We collect the boats and gear and head on down the river.
Stu tells me that the next drop is Iron Curtain. Its really just a big class III+ wave train that we will run down center left. As we get to the bottom of the drop there is a raft guide on top of a big rock in the center of the river and he is waving everyone to river right. Over on the right bank there are a bunch of rafts and a couple of guides talking to the Park Service Rangers and a couple of town cops. We are not sure what is going on and ask if they need help. They wave us on and we head downstream.
Later we hear that a commercial rafter has died after swimming at Iron Curtain and being pinned beneath a rock. We are told by other kayakers that they will be shutting the water off early in an attempt to locate the body. It must have happened just before we got there. Even the easier rapids on this river have fatal consequences.
Next up is Pillow Rock. I have been nervous about Pillow Rock all day. I went swimming there once after it flipped our 8 man raft. I can’t imagine how I will ever get through it in a kayak. My mouth is pretty dry and my stomach feels funny as we near the drop.
Stu and I stop in an eddy above the drop and watch as some of the others begin their run. There are spectators all over the shore hoping to see some carnage. Wayne is standing on Pillow Rock with his video camera. My first and possibly last run will be immortalized for future club members to enjoy.
 Stu tells me that there are a few lines to run. To the left towards the room of doom, down the middle into some really squirrely waves known as the toilet bowl and toward river right where its a little smoother.Stu points out a partially submerged rock and tells me to pass it within a foot to my right, count to 3 slowly and then paddle hard to my right. Don’t paddle right too soon or I will end up in a shallow trashy hole, don’t wait too long or I will end up in the toilet bowl. Stu bids me good luck and disappears over the horizon,
I peel out of the eddy and locate the rock. I pass by it but am kind of confused and forget to start counting, I’m not sure if I am on 2 or 3. Pretty sad, I can’t even count to three. I am really disoriented. The water is crashing all around me and the noise is incredible. i am in the middle of a maelstrom of violent churning whitewater. I see the shallow hole to my right and start paddling immediately to river right. My boat drops into a huge hole and I see a massive wave looming up in front of me. I lean forward and paddle hard into it. The wave crashes into my face and chest and I can’t see where I’m going next. My boat is getting tossed about violently and there is not much I can do about it. As I clear my eyes I see the next wave just ahead and Stu is paddling left to avoid it. I realize that it is not a wave but a pourover known as Volkswagon Rock. I paddle hard left and just clear it to my right.
Stu is waiting in the eddy below and tells me I did pretty well. He rarely sees a playboat go into the toilet bowl and emerge upright. I am not aware that I was even in the toilet bowl. I had no idea where I was in that mass of confusion. I also think that my 4 fun is more river runner than playboat but decide to keep all that to myself so I just smile and say thanks. I’m kind of relieved to have Pillow behind me and am starting to feel a little more confident.
We pass through a couple of other rapids and arrive at Lost Paddle. Stu tells me to avoid the big hole at the top and meet him in a large eddy below the 2nd big rock on the right. Art tries to punch his raft through the hole. It grabs the raft, stands it up vertically and dumps them over backwards. Immediately others are there helping Art with equipment and getting he and his wife back into the raft. I pull into an eddy and stay out of the way. I can’t believe that these paddlers are good enough to rescue people in a class V rapid. Its way beyond my skill level.
Stu points out a curling  wave to river left of the next eddy. He tells me to catch the extreme right of the wave and then paddle to the left to avoid a huge pourover. He pulls out of the eddy, catches the wave and disappears. I peel out of the eddy, the water is racing downstream into the wave. I catch the right side as instructed, go over the top and drop down into the hugest wave train I have ever seen. Waves are crashing all over me and I try to lean into them and paddle hard but one catches me square in the chest and I am knocked back a little. Immediately, my stern is swept downward and I am stern squirting in the middle of these massive waves. I am sure that the next wave will catch the bottom of my boat and I will flip over backwards. To my extreme amazement and relief the opposite happens and I am flung forward to a flat, upright position. I’m not sure how that happened but I guess its OK to be lucky.
The rest of Lost Paddle is kind of a blur. Its a really long rapid with 3 or 4 distinct drops that all kind of merge together in my mind. Stu is ahead and I follow him down through the waves although not as closely as I had previously followed him through Insignificant. I breathe a little easier knowing that 3 of the big rapids are behind me and that there are only 2 more to go.
Art asks if the group is OK with running Iron Ring without scouting. Putting my faith in Stu I say alright but am relieved when someone else has enough courage to say that they want to scout. For the first time we pull off the river and get out of our boats.
The scouting is really easy as you can see the entire drop from a big rock on river left. Stu points out 2 small holes and tells me to keep them on my left side but close enough to touch. They will lead me to a narrow 3′ wide tongue of water past a shallow hole to my right. Once past the hole I need to get off the tongue and paddle to my right into the wave train to avoid a huge hole to the left. He does tell me that the hole on the left will work me a little but eventually let me go. He has had an up close and personnel experience with it. Once past the hole I will need to paddle left to avoid the big rock on river right. As we watch, the guys in the shredder get too far left and drop into the big hole. The 2 paddlers are thrown immediately into the water but quickly flush through. The shredder does a couple of somersaults and also emerges unscathed. Stu smiles and says the he told me you would flush through.
I line up on the small holes and just as Stu promised, I am on a narrow tongue of  racing water. I can’t get over how fast this river moves. I see the shallow hole flash by on the right but am kind of hesitant to paddle to my right as instructed. Its scary over there, the waves are enormous and steep. I give it a half-hearted effort, hit the wave and am thrown violently to my left, upside down and into the hole. Its a mess under there. I am swirled around like a rag doll and can’t set up to roll so I just wait. Stu was right, I wash out, roll up and paddle hard away from the rock on river right. It isn’t pretty but I’m still in my boat.
Last up is Sweets Falls. There are people everywhere lining the banks. The locals bring down lawn chairs, food, beer (lots of beer) and make a day out of watching the idiots run the 14 foot drop. Any screw up is greatly appreciated by all in attendance.
We pull into an eddy above the drop and watch a couple of guys run it. Stu tells me its a 50/50 proposition for him. Sometimes right side up, sometimes upside down. I don’t really see what the big issue is. I remember it as a fairly straightforward drop when I rafted it. Stu points out a little seam at the top of the drop and tells me to line up somewhere near there. I peel out of the eddy and head toward the seam.
As I get to the lip of the drop I see that I am just a little right of the tongue. I had planned to get a nice boof stroke off the lip but instead paddle hard to my right to cut across the middle. I overshoot it, pencil in on the left and flip. I roll up to the cheers of the crowd. I’m a star having given them what they came for.
We paddle down to the takeout. I feel an enormous sense of relief that the trip is over and I don’t have to concentrate so hard any more. I really don’t want any more of the river today. Stu tells me I did great and will be leading people down the river myself in the future. I think that he’s crazy. I feel like I barely made it down, got worked by the river and just hung on through most of the rapids. But I stayed in my boat which is a small victory.
Wayne meets me at the takeout. I share a beer with Mike and Stu and express my thanks. They shake my hand a tell me that they’ll see me next year. Wayne and I climb into the car and start the long drive towards home.

Creating great river photographs

It seems that everyone has a digital camera these days and I
see people snapping pictures on the rivers all the time. Are you happy with the
results or disappointed in what you get? Ever wonder how to make the photos better?
Here are some quick tips to creating better photos and getting compliments from
your friends and family about what a great photographer you are.
#1  Good editing.
Even great photographers do not take perfect pictures every
time. With digital cameras it is easy to get carried away and shoot lots of
pictures. But seriously, do you want to share all of them, even the duds? What
is your reaction when someone shares 100 boring pictures with you? Do you
really look at them all? So, take a few minutes when you get back from a trip
and pick out a few of the best to share. If you share only the best, you are
instantly a better photographer. There is no cost to throwing the extras with
digital. Don’t be afraid to use the delete function.
#2 Make  people say “WOW” when they see a photo
Recognizable faces with interesting expressions grab your
attention. So make sure that the subject of your photo is looking at you, is
sharp and properly exposed (not too light or too dark). The face should not be
in dark shadow. Zoom close in to see the person’s face clearly. Most pocket
digital cameras have one auto focus point in the middle of the frame so put the
face in that spot for maximum sharpness. If you have a sports mode on your
camera, use it for action shots. It will give you the fastest shutter speed
which also improves sharpness. Watch out for the position of the paddle when
taking pictures of boaters,. It often ends up in front of the boaters face.
These are throw-aways. Take extras and save the one where everything comes
#3 Eliminate distractions
Look at the scene you are capturing and ask yourself? What
grabs me here? Why am attracted to this scene? Then capture that in the camera
without anything extra, such as pieces of other boaters, too many trees, too
much sky etc. Zoom in or move closer (not always possible in a boat), or change
your position to show a different background. Ideally you want enough
background to show where to boater is, or how big the waves are, but nothing
more. All photo editing software, such as Adobe Photoshop, Elements, Lightroom
etc has a crop tool. If you can’t eliminate it in camera, then crop later.
Today’s digital cameras have plenty of pixels so you can throw away some and
never miss them.
#4 Use the light
Sun can be your friend or your enemy and dramatically change
the mood of a photograph. Avoid shooting directly into the sun. Avoid putting
the sun directly behind your subject as this creates a dark shadow on the face.
In river photography, watch out for brightly sunlit water, as this tends to
overexpose and turn pure white with no detail. If you can, shoot on an overcast
day or in the shade. If the sun is out, try to position it behind you so it
lights the subject. What out for brightly lit areas that are not your subject
as these will draw attention away from your subject. Try to move or zoom to
eliminate these.
#5 Tell a story
When you put together a blog, a facebook page or an album,
select a group of photos that tell the story of the event. You might want to
include one or two that set the stage, such as the put-in, unloading boats etc,
and a series that show the action on the river, and maybe a parting shot to
close-out the show. You might have some wide shots that show the environment,
and some close-ups of the participants. Catchy captions can help tell the
story. Make each photo that you include a unique one and eliminate the
redundant ones, no matter how good you think they are. The audience will get
bored quickly, so pick the best one of each scene.
Here is an example of how I put these tips to use:
Hudson River Gorge Sept 2010:
We had a gorgeous fall day to paddle the Hudson Gorge in
late September. The fall foliage was so beautiful that I forgot to look at the
rocks in the river as I paddled down with my eyes wide open admiring the beauty
of the day. We had a fairly large group of experienced boaters, a relatively
low and easy water level, and a great day on the river. The photos in this
gallery were taken by a professional, James Swiegert who haunts the river and takes
pictures for the rafting companies, and Ram Tripathi. James took all the
close-ups at the Narrows in the Hudson Gorge.


Ready to level up?

One of the most common questions newer paddlers ask is: How do I get ready for the next class of river? And the most common answer they get is: Practice more difficult moves on an easier river (or, as one of my more cerebral paddling buddies says: Make class n+1 moves on a class n river).
But what does that mean? It’s hard to know what moves look like on a harder river if you haven’t been on one, but there are a few methods of practice that can’t go wrong. First and foremost: Catch eddies. Up high, close to the rock, paddling yourself across the eddyline. When you were brand new, there were likely plenty of rapids you ran that had no eddies at all. Well, guess what? They probably did after all. The first step to advancing is finding them and catching them so you can look downstream and plan your next move in a controlled way rather than just surviving a run down the middle. Now, see that eddy on the other side of the river there’s no way to get to? Find a way. How about that one that’s upstream a bit, or the one that requires a short surf across a little hole, or the one that’s intimidating even though it’s easy, because it requires a ferry above some thing scary? If you miss, find a way to recover, make a plan B on the fly, catch the next eddy and get in control again. If you alllmost get it, don’t let yourself off the hook. Pretend it’s “must make” and paddle up like mad until you’re fully in the eddy and you can catch your breath before planning your next move. On your next run, make the same moves with more grace and half as many paddle strokes.
Another option is to ask your instructor or a trusted friend who’s more advanced than you to show you some fun and challenging lines.
While you’re pushing your boat handling skills forward, you’re doing something else that is crucial to advancing, probably without realizing it: Learning how to read the river. I remember that, for me, one of my real breakthrough points early on was when I began to be able to find my own way down a rapid without help. When you paddle, keep your eye out for all the river features you heard about in your beginner classes: Downstream Vs (tongues), waves, eddies, holes, etc. Remember that, sometimes, it’s easier to identify a feature by looking a little below it and noticing what the water is doing. Try to identify features from upstream, then look as you pass by to see if you were right. If you stop to scout a rapid, try to identify features and lines before your leader gives you all the answers. Speaking of the leader, ask him or her to let you take the lead sometime when they think it’s appropriate.
You can work on your river reading even when you’re not paddling. Next time you’re up at the Deerfield, take a short hike into Dragon’s Tooth, try to spot features and lines, watch lots of paddlers run it in different ways, enjoy some carnage and discuss with your friends what they did wrong. There are lots of more difficult rivers you can hike and enjoy from the bank. You can even work on your reading with the tiniest of streams or a gutter on the side of the road. Pretend you’re tiny and all the same features are there. What do you see? Where would your line be? Realize that, if you find yourself doing this, you are probably an addict.
You’ll notice I haven’t mentioned a roll. While having a roll is something that will certainly be required later, it’s less important than all of the above in your transition from class I-II to class II-III. Of course it’s nice to stay in the boat, but a swim on a class II-III river is unlikely to cause major difficulties.
So…The next question: How do I know when I’m ready? Well, first, you’re finding those class n+1 moves are getting pretty easy. For me, I find there comes a point when a river that has terrified me for years suddenly looks like fun. It’s a bit mysterious to me, but my subconscious brain seems to have a sense of what kind of paddling I can handle. The thing that has been my most powerful compass over the years, however, is the paddling companions I have come to know and trust. As you become more experienced, you’ll find  paddlers of various levels whose judgement aligns with yours and who know you well enough to help you assess your paddling skill. Of course, you are ultimately responsible for your own choices and the decision to run a harder river is highly individualized according to your confidence, tolerance for risk, and general disposition.
And don’t forget to have fun.

Pinned on the Moodna

Don’t be lulled into thinking that it’s only the crazy class 5 stuff that Wayne likes that can cause problems. I was out with 3 friends last March, and after having a good line through the one class 4 and no problems on the class 3 stuff I got to the last “rapid”. It was really just a short wave train that was fast, but really not even class 2. The very first wave was a small breaking wave, and as I hit it I got quickly displaced about 4 feet to the left, and probably pointed a bit left as well. That left me lined up to go through a couple of small branches from a small tree that was hanging out over the left bank, instead of skirting the end of it. That  wasn’t a problem by itself, but it cheated me out of at least one good stroke, and that’s what I now needed to miss the pair of logs along the bank another 20 feet downstream.

Strainer on the Moodna

Luckily, my instincts were good, and I leaned on to the top log as I broached on it, holding my upstream edge nice and high. The log was at about a 45º angle to the current, with the upstream end against the bank, and the bottom of the log just slightly in the water. The top of the bottom log was just a few inches below the top log, and that log pointed a bit more downstream, so the two logs made a bit of an X shape, with the center of the X at about the back of my cockpit. My boat was bouncing a bit in the current, but I felt pretty stable. While I waited for my friends to come help I first tried shimmying towards the downstream end of the log. I only need to go about 3 feet, but after moving a foot and looking at things I decided there was too much risk that the front of my boat might drop under the top log before I was far enough past it. That offered a chance of flushing past things, but several ways of being pinned and probably underwater, and maybe even trapped in the boat. For some reason that didn’t seem very appealing, so I shimmed back the other way. That took perhaps 30 seconds, which is when my first friend got there.
A closer look

He started by wading out on the downstream side of the logs to grab hold of me, but it was too deep for him to get a good angle reaching over the top of the log. That was good news, because it mean that if I did go under the logs I’d probably go all the way under instead of being pinned against them or between the logs and the bottom. At that point the other two got there, and I told them to clip a rope to my stern grab loop and pull me backwards and just slightly upstream. What I should have told them was to clip to the safety bar behind the cockpit, on the right side. That would have  helped to keep the boat rolled towards the log as they pulled, but by pulling from the grab loop the boat rolled upstream as they pulled back. I forget if that actually put my head in the water right away, but it seemed like a very good time to get out of the boat.
I pulled the skirt and got out, while keeping a very good grip on the rim of the cockpit, since the current now wanted to push me into or under the logs without the boat. I got my legs on the bottom log and one arm over the top log, then let go of the rim and got the other arm on the log and put one leg over the top log. I could feel a bit of a projection on the bottom log, but couldn’t quite get my foot on it, which would have made it easy to push up and climb over the top log. Instead I just held on a for a few seconds while my friend got downstream and gave me a better hand hold. That made it easy to climb up on the log and  then off the end and onto the bank. Start to finish we figure it lasted about 2 minutes, and I’m pretty sure my friends were a lot more scared than I was. That’s because they couldn’t immediately tell that it was a pretty stable pin, and I was too busy thinking about solving the problem to be very worried.
So here are a few things to take away from the experience:

  • I was following the fun wave train instead of the boring water towards the inside of the slight bend. I knew the sweeper was there, but I’m not sure I really saw the logs. Either way, it’s easy to be complacent when things aren’t especially difficult, but the rocks are just as hard and the current can be fast even in class 1 or 2.
  • Always lean on to anything you’re about to broach on. If my upstream edge hadn’t been out of the water I would have been upside down, and somewhere under the top log almost immediately. As above, I might have just flushed completely under, but there are a number of ways I might have been stuck in a very bad place.
  • Keep the group close together. If I’d been last in line I would have waited longer for help. There’s not much you can do about that, but I was close enough to have hollered for help if I had been last. With somebody close behind me I only waited while he got out downstream of the logs and came back up to me. With more separation it’s easy to miss a problem with the last paddler, and in almost all situations it will increase response time. In this case my friend was just behind me (and following the same line until he saw me get shifted left).
  • Be very mindful of what will happen when you start doing things. There’s a potentially huge difference between acting quickly and acting hastily. You may need to hurry when things go wrong, but taking 10 or 15 seconds to think things through may be much better than starting a little bit sooner. Here are a couple of related things from my cave rescue classes: STOP! – Stop, Think, Observe, Plan. “Don’t just do something, stand there”.
  • Be prepared. Carry a throw rope and other safety gear and know how to use it. Take a swiftwater rescue class, or at the very least, read a book or two. “Whitewater Rescue Manual” by Walbridge and Sundmacher is a good one, as is “River Rescue” by Les Bechdel and Slim Ray.


Otters are semi-aquatic (or in one case aquatic) mammals. The otter subfamily Lutrinae forms part of the family Mustelidae, which also includes weasels, polecats, badgers, and wolverines. With twelve species in seven genera, otters have an almost worldwide distribution. They mainly eat aquatic animals, predominantly fish and shellfish, but also other invertebrates, amphibians, birds and small mammals.
Otters have long, slim bodies and relatively short limbs, with webbed paws. Most have sharp claws on their feet, and all except the sea otter have long muscular tails. The twelve species range in adult size from 0.7 to 1.8 metres (2 to 6 feet) in length and 5 to 45 kilograms (11 to 100 pounds) in weight.
They have a very soft, insulated underfur which is protected by their outer layer of long guard hair. This traps a layer of air, and keeps them dry and warm under water.
This information from Wikipedia.

Do You Have What it Takes?

lead a tripIf you are reading this, then it is probably because you became a member of the KCCNY, presumably for the number of things that the Club has to offer. Maybe you had not paddled at all before taking one of the Club’s beginner classes, or maybe you had paddled a bit and were looking for some instruction on easier rivers. Maybe you were already comfortable with your abilities and progress and were looking for other people to paddle with. Maybe it is because you wanted to go to some pool sessions and work on your roll.
Maybe it is because of the extraordinary number of river trips schedule on the KCCNY site, making it that much easier for all levels of paddlers to be out on a river. Again, these trips do cover a wide range of levels. There are the follow-up instruction trips on easy rivers for those who are fresh out of a beginner class, to the intermediate level river run. There is also a number of more challenging trips on more difficult rivers. Unfortunately, what does not have a wide of range is the small number of people leading these trips! The KCCNY can only maintain the number of choices on the schedule if we have Trip Leaders. As it stands now, this schedule is run by a handful of our members. If you have not volunteered as a Trip Leader then maybe it is because you don’t know if you have what it takes to run a trip. If so, please let me explain.
The fact is we don’t really have Trip Leaders; it is more of being a Trip Coordinator. Even if Andrea isn’t there with her picnic basket of wine, cheese, and crackers, it’s still a lot like planning a picnic. All you need to do is choose a suitable place, announce the trip, and handle the logistics of getting a few people to meet you at the put in. Of course every trip should be made up of a group that is strong enough to fend for themselves, including chasing any swimmers and their gear, but you do not have to be the strongest paddler on the trip to be the Trip Coordinator. Trips where the coordinator is the best or strongest paddler are actually few and far between. If you would be willing to lead a trip, but are not sure that you are ready, or you may have any other concerns than please ask any of us what we think! All you need is to be a competent paddler on at least one river and organize a trip on that river. Example, if you are comfortable paddling the lower, lower Lehigh or the Lackawaxen when someone else is leading the trip, then YOU can probably lead a trip on those rivers!
There is a small amount of paperwork (a couple of short emails, really), and some emails or phone calls with people interested in the trip. One of the big plus’s to volunteering as a Trip Coordinator is that it guarantees that you will be on a river that you presumably wanted to go on, anyway. You can simply find a link to the full details at the top of the trip schedule page or you can go directly to: Responsibilities of Coordinator
Again, whatever your reasons were for joining the KCCNY you had to have figured out the Club had something to offer you that was more valuable than the paltry annual membership dues.
If you love this sport as much as I do and have found a home with the KCCNY then you have to realize it is largely due to the efforts of our volunteers. It is because of the Trip Coordinator that continue to make it possible for you and your fellow paddlers to be out on a river enjoying one of life’s most wonderful experiences.
I will look forward to seeing YOU this season and encourage you to – Step up to the river bank as a Trip Coordinator!
Steve M.